A Listing of PA Standards Addressed
"Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to..."1.1.5 C - Use knowledge of phonics, word analysis, syllabication, prefixes, suffixes, the dictionary or context clues to decode and understand new words during reading. Use these words accurately in writing and speaking.
1.1.3 E - Acquire a reading vocabulary by identifying and correctly using words. Use a dictionary when appropriate.
Planet Quiz Show answers are online for use by students, but the information is presented at a reading level higher than fourth grade.
1.1.3 F - Understand the meaning of and use correctly new vocabulary learned in various subject areas.
1.2.3 B i - Use electronic media for research.
The PQS is online and can be used as a study tool.
1.6.5 A i - Ask pertinent questions.
Students may ask and encouraged to ask questions at any point during the classroom orientation.
1.6.3 A ii - Distinguish relevant information, ideas, and opinions from those that are irrelevant.
This will occur during the classroom orientation. The primary objective of The PQS is to provide the most current information about the solar system to pupils.
1.6.5 D i - Ask relevant questions.
This occurs during classroom orientation.
1.6.5 D ii - Respond with relevant information or opinions to questions asked.
This occurs during classroom orientation and planetarium presentation.
1.6.5 D iii - Listen to and acknowledge the contributions of others.
This occurs extensively throughout the classroom orientation and planetarium program.
1.6.5 D iv - Adjust involvement to encourage equitable participation.
This occurs extensively during the planetarium presentation.
1.5.5 F ii - Access information on Internet.
The Planet Quiz Show is online on the ASD Planetarium's website, www.astronomy.org. The Astronomy links page of www.astronomy.org/index.html can be used for research.
1.7.3 A - Identify words from other languages that are commonly used English words.
Planet names are Roman (Latin), except for Uranus, which is Greek.
1.8.5 B - Locate information using appropriate sources and strategies.
Teams need to gather data in a cooperative manner to prepare for The Planet Quiz Show.
2.1.3 B - Use whole numbers and fractions to represent quantities.
This standard is addressed throughout the entire PQS.
2.1.3 C - Represent equivalent forms of the same number through the use of concrete objects, drawings, word names, and symbols.
Planet sizes and distances are shown to scale with the use of models.
2.1.5 D - Use models to represent fractions and decimals.
This standard is addressed by using a scale model of the solar system, a scale paper towel distance model of the solar system, and web pictures that are drawn to correct proportion.
2.1.5 F - Use simple concepts of negative numbers.
Most of the surface or cloud top temperature of the planets are below zero and expressed as negative numbers.
2.1.3 J - Estimate, approximate, round or use exact number as appropriate.
The temperature profile of solar system, distances from the sun to the planets, the diameters of the planets, and descriptively quantifying gravity all fit this standard.
2.2.3 A - Use estimation skills to arrive at conclusions.
Students accurately estimate the temperatures of most of the other planets after seeing the correct temperatures for Pluto (-400 oF) and Neptune (-350 oF).
2.3.5 A - Select and use appropriate instruments and units for measuring quantities.
The concepts are quantified in The Planet Quiz Show using traditional, as well as nontraditional units.
2.4.5 C - Draw inductive and deductive conclusions with mathematical contexts.
If a fourth grader weighs 60 pounds on Earth, will he weigh more or less on the moon, Jupiter, Pluto, the sun, etc.?
2.5.5 C - Show ideas in a variety of ways including words, numbers, symbols, pictures, charts, graphs, and tables.
This standard is addressed throughout the entire PQS.
2.6.5 A - Organize and display data using pictures, tallies, tables, charts, bar graphs, and circle graphs.
Data is displayed in numerous tables throughout the web version of the PQS.
2.11.C - Identify maximum and minimum.
The physical properties and orbital parameters of the planets are understood through knowledge of the range of possibilities associated with the specific parameter of biggest/smallest, farthest/closest, etc.
2.11.D - Describe the relationship between rates of change and time.
The orbital periods of the planets decrease sunward because orbital velocities increase and orbital sizes decrease.
3.1.4 B ii - Identify and apply models as tools for prediction and insight.
Planets closer to the sun are generally warmer. The force of gravity varies with distance from sun. Venus is hotter than Mercury because greenhouse gases trap heat.
3.1.4 B iii - Apply appropriate simple modeling tools and techniques.
The temperature distribution of the planets, and the orbital periods of the planets are modeled.
3.1.4 D i - Identify the use of scale as it relates to the measurement of distance, volume, and mass.
The size of the planets is compared to the sun. Create a distance scale of the solar system using the length of a paper towel to equal the Earth-sun distance.
3.1.4 D ii - Describe scale as a ratio.
The distance of the Earth from the sun is 1/40th the average distance of Pluto from the sun or 1/5th the distance to Jupiter, etc
3.1.4 E ii - Examine and explain change by using time and measurement.
Examples: origin and demise of our solar system, orbital and spin periods of the planets.
3.2.4 A i - Distinguish between a scientific fact and a belief.
All matter everywhere has gravity, not just the Earth. The gas giant planets are mostly liquid.
3.2.4 A ii - Provide clear explanations that account for observations and results.
Planets shine by reflecting light from the sun. Planets observed in the sky are usually brighter than the stars that surround them, and they shine with a steadier light than the stars.
3.2.4 A iii - Relate how new information can change existing perceptions.
A large, massive Planet-X probably does not exist beyond Pluto. Instead the outer solar system is populated by thousands of smaller bodies similar in composition to Pluto. Because of this, Pluto may become "decommissioned" as a planet in the future.
3.2.4 B ii - Use observations to develop a descriptive vocabulary.
Describe how the planets, the moon, and a bright comet look.
3.2.4 C i - Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigation.
Name any planet that can be easily seen in the evening sky. Will the moon be in the sky tonight before bedtime?
3.2.4 C iv - State a conclusion that is consistent with the information.
Pluto should be "decommissioned" as a planet because its characteristics are very different from any of the other planets in the solar system.
3.3.4 A iii - Describe the basic needs of plants and animals.
Could life exist on the planet Mars?
3.3.4 C i - Identify characteristics for animal and plant survival in different climates.
In what ways is the planet Mars similar to Earth? How will humans have to adapt to new conditions as they begin to travel to other planets in the solar system?
3.3.4 A iii - Know different material characteristics.
Example: solid inner planets, liquid outer planets
3.4.4 B i - Identify energy forms and examples.
Planets shine by reflecting sunlight or starlight. Stars make their own heat and light. The greenhouse effect makes Venus extremely hot.
3.4.4 C ii - Recognize forces that attract or repel other objects and demonstrate them.
All material objects have gravity. How much would a 100 pound person weigh on another planet?
3.4.4 C iii - Describe various types of motions.
All objects in space are in motion. Rotation equals spin, and it can be associated with the day. Revolution is equivalent to orbiting and represents the year.
3.4.4 C iv - Compare the relative movement of objects and describe types of motion that are evident.
Rotation of the Earth causes the apparent motion of the sun across the sky and is responsible for day and night.
3.4.4 C v - Describe the position of an object by locating it relative to another object or the background.
Planets appear among the stars, but like the sun they are much closer to Earth.
3.4.4 D I - Recognize Earth's place in the solar system.
Name the nine planets that orbit the sun in their correct order. How far is Earth from the sun?
3.4.4 D iv - Describe the solar system motions and use them to explain time, major lunar phases, and eclipses.
Rotation is to the day as revolution is to the year.
3.5.4 A ii - Identify various Earth structures through the use of models.
Name the planets and the moons in our solar system that have volcanoes or active volcanism on their surfaces.
3.5.4 B i - Identify cloud types.
Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune have hurricanes that have been imaged from space. They have distinctive cloud shapes that are easily identified.
3.6.4 B ii - Identify graphic reproduction methods.
Satellites transmit information electronically from distant planets to the Earth that can be reconstructed into pictures of those worlds.
3.7.4 B ii - Explain appropriate instrument selection for specific tasks.
Satellites, orbiters, and robotic rovers explore the solar system from space and send back their information to Earth, while ground-based telescopes do the same from Earth's surface.
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